Number Systems — Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal ...

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222, the product of our May/June development cycle, is ready today, and it’s a very exciting release. There are lots of bug fixes, including some long-standing issues with classics like Bosconian and Gaplus, and missing pan/zoom effects in games on Seta hardware. Two more Nintendo LCD games are supported: the Panorama Screen version of Popeye, and the two-player Donkey Kong 3 Micro Vs. System. New versions of supported games include a review copy of DonPachi that allows the game to be paused for photography, and a version of the adult Qix game Gals Panic for the Taiwanese market.
Other advancements on the arcade side include audio circuitry emulation for 280-ZZZAP, and protection microcontroller emulation for Kick and Run and Captain Silver.
The GRiD Compass series were possibly the first rugged computers in the clamshell form factor, possibly best known for their use on NASA space shuttle missions in the 1980s. The initial model, the Compass 1101, is now usable in MAME. There are lots of improvements to the Tandy Color Computer drivers in this release, with better cartridge support being a theme. Acorn BBC series drivers now support Solidisk file system ROMs. Writing to IMD floppy images (popular for CP/M computers) is now supported, and a critical bug affecting writes to HFE disk images has been fixed. Software list additions include a collection of CDs for the SGI MIPS workstations.
There are several updates to Apple II emulation this month, including support for several accelerators, a new IWM floppy controller core, and support for using two memory cards simultaneously on the CFFA2. As usual, we’ve added the latest original software dumps and clean cracks to the software lists, including lots of educational titles.
Finally, the memory system has been optimised, yielding performance improvements in all emulated systems, you no longer need to avoid non-ASCII characters in paths when using the chdman tool, and jedutil supports more devices.
There were too many HyperScan RFID cards added to the software list to itemise them all here. You can read about all the updates in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222, the product of our May/June development cycle, is ready today, and it’s a very exciting release. There are lots of bug fixes, including some long-standing issues with classics like Bosconian and Gaplus, and missing pan/zoom effects in games on Seta hardware. Two more Nintendo LCD games are supported: the Panorama Screen version of Popeye, and the two-player Donkey Kong 3 Micro Vs. System. New versions of supported games include a review copy of DonPachi that allows the game to be paused for photography, and a version of the adult Qix game Gals Panic for the Taiwanese market.
Other advancements on the arcade side include audio circuitry emulation for 280-ZZZAP, and protection microcontroller emulation for Kick and Run and Captain Silver.
The GRiD Compass series were possibly the first rugged computers in the clamshell form factor, possibly best known for their use on NASA space shuttle missions in the 1980s. The initial model, the Compass 1101, is now usable in MAME. There are lots of improvements to the Tandy Color Computer drivers in this release, with better cartridge support being a theme. Acorn BBC series drivers now support Solidisk file system ROMs. Writing to IMD floppy images (popular for CP/M computers) is now supported, and a critical bug affecting writes to HFE disk images has been fixed. Software list additions include a collection of CDs for the SGI MIPS workstations.
There are several updates to Apple II emulation this month, including support for several accelerators, a new IWM floppy controller core, and support for using two memory cards simultaneously on the CFFA2. As usual, we’ve added the latest original software dumps and clean cracks to the software lists, including lots of educational titles.
Finally, the memory system has been optimised, yielding performance improvements in all emulated systems, you no longer need to avoid non-ASCII characters in paths when using the chdman tool, and jedutil supports more devices.
There were too many HyperScan RFID cards added to the software list to itemise them all here. You can read about all the updates in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222, the product of our May/June development cycle, is ready today, and it’s a very exciting release. There are lots of bug fixes, including some long-standing issues with classics like Bosconian and Gaplus, and missing pan/zoom effects in games on Seta hardware. Two more Nintendo LCD games are supported: the Panorama Screen version of Popeye, and the two-player Donkey Kong 3 Micro Vs. System. New versions of supported games include a review copy of DonPachi that allows the game to be paused for photography, and a version of the adult Qix game Gals Panic for the Taiwanese market.
Other advancements on the arcade side include audio circuitry emulation for 280-ZZZAP, and protection microcontroller emulation for Kick and Run and Captain Silver.
The GRiD Compass series were possibly the first rugged computers in the clamshell form factor, possibly best known for their use on NASA space shuttle missions in the 1980s. The initial model, the Compass 1101, is now usable in MAME. There are lots of improvements to the Tandy Color Computer drivers in this release, with better cartridge support being a theme. Acorn BBC series drivers now support Solidisk file system ROMs. Writing to IMD floppy images (popular for CP/M computers) is now supported, and a critical bug affecting writes to HFE disk images has been fixed. Software list additions include a collection of CDs for the SGI MIPS workstations.
There are several updates to Apple II emulation this month, including support for several accelerators, a new IWM floppy controller core, and support for using two memory cards simultaneously on the CFFA2. As usual, we’ve added the latest original software dumps and clean cracks to the software lists, including lots of educational titles.
Finally, the memory system has been optimised, yielding performance improvements in all emulated systems, you no longer need to avoid non-ASCII characters in paths when using the chdman tool, and jedutil supports more devices.
There were too many HyperScan RFID cards added to the software list to itemise them all here. You can read about all the updates in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

submitted by cuavas to cade [link] [comments]

Differences between LISP 1.5 and Common Lisp, Part 1:

[Edit: I didn't mean to put a colon in the title.]
In this post we'll be looking at some of the things that make LISP 1.5 and Common Lisp different. There isn't too much surviving LISP 1.5 code, but some of the code that is still around is interesting and worthy of study.
Here are some conventions used in this post of which you might take notice:
Sources are linked sometimes below, but here is a list of links that were helpful while writing this:
The differences between LISP 1.5 and Common Lisp can be classified into the following groups:
  1. Superficial differences—matters of syntax
  2. Conventional differences—matters of code style and form
  3. Fundamental differences—matters of semantics
  4. Library differences—matters of available functions
This post will go through the first three of these groups in that order. A future post will discuss library differences, except for some functions dealing with character-based input and output, since they are a little world unto their own.
[Originally the library differences were part of this post, but it exceeded the length limit on posts (40000 characters)].

Superficial differences.

LISP 1.5 was used initially on computers that had very limited character sets. The machine on which it ran at MIT, the IBM 7090, used a six-bit, binary-coded decimal encoding for characters, which could theoretically represent up to sixty-four characters. In practice, only fourty-six were widely used. The repertoire of this character set consisted of the twenty-six uppercase letters, the nine digits, the blank character '', and the ten special characters '-', '/', '=', '.', '$', ',', '(', ')', '*', and '+'. You might note the absence of the apostrophe/single quote—there was no shorthand for the quote operator in LISP 1.5 because no sensical character was available.
When the LISP 1.5 system read input from cards, it treated the end of a card not like a blank character (as is done in C, TeX, etc.), but as nothing. Therefore the first character of a symbol's name could be the last character of a card, the remaining characters appearing at the beginning of the next card. Lisp's syntax allowed for the omission of almost all whitespace besides that which was used as delimiters to separate tokens.
List syntax. Lists were contained within parentheses, as is the case in Common Lisp. From the beginning Lisp had the consing dot, which was written as a period in LISP 1.5; the interaction between the period when used as the consing dot and the period when used as the decimal point will be described shortly.
In LISP 1.5, the comma was equivalent to a blank character; both could be used to delimit items within a list. The LISP I Programmer's Manual, p. 24, tells us that
The commas in writing S-expressions may be omitted. This is an accident.
Number syntax. Numbers took one of three forms: fixed-point integers, floating-point numbers, and octal numbers. (Of course octal numbers were just an alternative notation for the fixed-point integers.)
Fixed-point integers were written simply as the decimal representation of the integers, with an optional sign. It isn't explicitly mentioned whether a plus sign is allowed in this case or if only a minus sign is, but floating-point syntax does allow an initial plus sign, so it makes sense that the fixed-point number syntax would as well.
Floating-point numbers had the syntax described by the following context-free grammar, where a term in square brackets indicates that the term is optional:
float: [sign] integer '.' [integer] exponent [sign] integer '.' integer [exponent] exponent: 'E' [sign] digit [digit] integer: digit integer digit digit: one of '0' '1' '2' '3' '4' '5' '6' '7' '8' '9' sign: one of '+' '-' 
This grammar generates things like 100.3 and 1.E5 but not things like .01 or 14E2 or 100.. The manual seems to imply that if you wrote, say, (100. 200), the period would be treated as a consing dot [the result being (cons 100 200)].
Floating-point numbers are limited in absolute value to the interval (2-128, 2128), and eight digits are significant.
Octal numbers are defined by the following grammar:
octal: [sign] octal-digits 'Q' [integer] octal-digits: octal-digit [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] [octal-digit] octal-digit: one of '0' '1' '2' '3' '4' '5' '6' '7' 
The optional integer following 'Q' is a scale factor, which is a decimal integer representing an exponent with a base of 8. Positive octal numbers behave as one would expect: The value is shifted to the left 3×s bits, where s is the scale factor. Octal was useful on the IBM 7090, since it used thirty-six-bit words; twelve octal digits (which is the maximum allowed in an octal number in LISP 1.5) thus represent a single word in a convenient way that is more compact than binary (but still being easily convertable to and from binary). If the number has a negative sign, then the thirty-sixth bit is logically ored with 1.
The syntax of Common Lisp's numbers is a superset of that of LISP 1.5. The only major difference is in the notation of octal numbers; Common Lisp uses the sharpsign reader macro for that purpose. Because of the somewhat odd semantics of the minus sign in octal numbers in LISP 1.5, it is not necessarily trivial to convert a LISP 1.5 octal number into a Common Lisp expression resulting in the same value.
Symbol syntax. Symbol names can be up to thirty characters in length. While the actual name of a symbol was kept on its property list under the pname indicator and could be any sequence of thirty characters, the syntax accepted by the read program for symbols was limited in a few ways. First, it must not begin with a digit or with either of the characters '+' or '-', and the first two characters cannot be '$'. Otherwise, all the alphanumeric characters, along with the special characters '+', '-', '=', '*', '/', and '$'. The fact that a symbol can't begin with a sign character or a digit has to do with the number syntax; the fact that a symbol can't begin with '$$' has to do with the mechanism by which the LISP 1.5 reader allowed you to write characters that are usually not allowed in symbols, which is described next.
Two dollar signs initiated the reading of what we today might call an "escape sequence". An escape sequence had the form "$$xSx", where x was any character and S was a sequence of up to thirty characters not including x. For example, $$x()x would get the symbol whose name is '()' and would print as '()'. Thus it is similar in purpose to Common Lisp's | syntax. There is a significant difference: It could not be embedded within a symbol, unlike Common Lisp's |. In this respect it is closer to Maclisp's | reader macro (which created a single token) than it is to Common Lisp's multiple escape character. In LISP 1.5, "A$$X()X$" would be read as (1) the symbol A$$X, (2) the empty list, (3) the symbol X.
The following code sets up a $ reader macro so that symbols using the $$ notation will be read in properly, while leaving things like $eof$ alone.
(defun dollar-sign-reader (stream character) (declare (ignore character)) (let ((next (read-char stream t nil t))) (cond ((char= next #\$) (let ((terminator (read-char stream t nil t))) (values (intern (with-output-to-string (name) (loop for c := (read-char stream t nil t) until (char= c terminator) do (write-char c name))))))) (t (unread-char next stream) (with-standard-io-syntax (read (make-concatenated-stream (make-string-input-stream "$") stream) t nil t)))))) (set-macro-character #\$ #'dollar-sign-reader t) 

Conventional differences.

LISP 1.5 is an old programming language. Generally, compared to its contemporaries (such as FORTRANs I–IV), it holds up well to modern standards, but sometimes its age does show. And there were some aspects of LISP 1.5 that might be surprising to programmers familiar only with Common Lisp or a Scheme.
M-expressions. John McCarthy's original concept of Lisp was a language with a syntax like this (from the LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual, p. 11):
equal[x;y]=[atom[x]→[atom[y]→eq[x;y]; T→F]; equal[car[x];car[Y]]→equal[cdr[x];cdr[y]]; T→F] 
There are several things to note. First is the entirely different phrase structure. It's is an infix language looking much closer to mathematics than the Lisp we know and love. Square brackets are used instead of parentheses, and semicolons are used instead of commas (or blanks). When square brackets do not enclose function arguments (or parameters when to the left of the equals sign), they set up a conditional expression; the arrows separate predicate expressions and consequent expressions.
If that was Lisp, then where do s-expressions come in? Answer: quoting. In the m-expression notation, uppercase strings of characters represent quoted symbols, and parenthesized lists represent quoted lists. Here is an example from page 13 of the manual:
λ[[x;y];cons[car[x];y]][(A B);(C D)] 
As an s-expressions, this would be
((lambda (x y) (cons (car x) y)) '(A B) '(C D)) 
The majority of the code in the manual is presented in m-expression form.
So why did s-expressions stick? There are a number of reasons. The earliest Lisp interpreter was a translation of the program for eval in McCarthy's paper introducing Lisp, which interpreted quoted data; therefore it read code in the form of s-expressions. S-expressions are much easier for a computer to parse than m-expressions, and also more consistent. (Also, the character set mentioned above includes neither square brackets nor a semicolon, let alone a lambda character.) But in publications m-expressions were seen frequently; perhaps the syntax was seen as a kind of "Lisp pseudocode".
Comments. LISP 1.5 had no built-in commenting mechanism. It's easy enough to define a comment operator in the language, but it seemed like nobody felt a need for them.
Interestingly, FORTRAN I had comments. Assembly languages of the time sort of had comments, in that they had a portion of each line/card that was ignored in which you could put any text. FORTRAN was ahead of its time.
(Historical note: The semicolon comment used in Common Lisp comes from Maclisp. Maclisp likely got it from PDP-10 assembly language, which let a semicolon and/or a line break terminate a statement; thus anything following a semicolon is ignored. The convention of octal numbers by default, decimal numbers being indicated by a trailing decimal point, of Maclisp too comes from the assembly language.)
Code formatting. The code in the manual that isn't written using m-expression syntax is generally lacking in meaningful indentation and spacing. Here is an example (p. 49):
(TH1 (LAMBDA (A1 A2 A C) (COND ((NULL A) (TH2 A1 A2 NIL NIL C)) (T (OR (MEMBER (CAR A) C) (COND ((ATOM (CAR A)) (TH1 (COND ((MEMBER (CAR A) A1) A1) (T (CONS (CAR A) A1))) A2 (CDR A) C)) (T (TH1 A1 (COND ((MEMBER (CAR A) A2) A2) (T (CONS (CAR A) A2))) (CDR A) C)))))))) 
Nowadays we might indent it like so:
(TH1 (LAMBDA (A1 A2 A C) (COND ((NULL A) (TH2 A1 A2 NIL NIL C)) (T (OR (MEMBER (CAR A) C) (COND ((ATOM (CAR A)) (TH1 (COND ((MEMBER (CAR A) A1) A1) (T (CONS (CAR A) A1))) A2 (CDR A) C)) (T (TH1 A1 (COND ((MEMBER (CAR A) A2) A2) (T (CONS (CAR A) A2))) (CDR A) C)))))))) 
Part of the lack of formatting stems probably from the primarily punched-card-based programming world of the time; you would see the indented structure only by printing a listing of your code, so there is no need to format the punched cards carefully. LISP 1.5 allowed a very free format, especially when compared to FORTRAN; the consequence is that early LISP 1.5 programs are very difficult to read because of the lack of spacing, while old FORTRAN programs are limited at least to one statement per line.
The close relationship of Lisp and pretty-printing originates in programs developed to produce nicely formatted listings of Lisp code.
Lisp code from the mid-sixties used some peculiar formatting conventions that seem odd today. Here is a quote from Steele and Gabriel's Evolution of Lisp:
This intermediate example is derived from a 1966 coding style:
DEFINE(( (MEMBER (LAMBDA (A X) (COND ((NULL X) F) ((EQ A (CAR X) ) T) (T (MEMBER A (CDR X))) ))) )) 
The design of this style appears to take the name of the function, the arguments, and the very beginning of the COND as an idiom, and hence they are on the same line together. The branches of the COND clause line up, which shows the structure of the cases considered.
This kind of indentation is somewhat reminiscent of the formatting of Algol programs in publications.
Programming style. Old LISP 1.5 programs can seem somewhat primitive. There is heavy use of the prog feature, which is related partially to the programming style that was common at the time and partially to the lack of control structures in LISP 1.5. You could express iteration only by using recursion or by using prog+go; there wasn't a built-in looping facility. There is a library function called for that is something like the early form of Maclisp's do (the later form would be inherited in Common Lisp), but no surviving LISP 1.5 code uses it. [I'm thinking of making another post about converting programs using prog to the more structured forms that Common Lisp supports, if doing so would make the logic of the program clearer. Naturally there is a lot of literature on so called "goto elimination" and doing it automatically, so it would not present any new knowledge, but it would have lots of Lisp examples.]
LISP 1.5 did not have a let construct. You would use either a prog and setq or a lambda:
(let ((x y)) ...) 
is equivalent to
((lambda (x) ...) y) 
Something that stands out immediately when reading LISP 1.5 code is the heavy, heavy use of combinations of car and cdr. This might help (though car and cdr should be left alone when they are used with dotted pairs):
(car x) = (first x) (cdr x) = (rest x) (caar x) = (first (first x)) (cadr x) = (second x) (cdar x) = (rest (first x)) (cddr x) = (rest (rest x)) (caaar x) = (first (first (first x))) (caadr x) = (first (second x)) (cadar x) = (second (first x)) (caddr x) = (third x) (cdaar x) = (rest (first (first x))) (cdadr x) = (rest (second x)) (cddar x) = (rest (rest (first x))) (cdddr x) = (rest (rest (rest x))) 
Here are some higher compositions, even though LISP 1.5 doesn't have them.
(caaaar x) = (first (first (first (first x)))) (caaadr x) = (first (first (second x))) (caadar x) = (first (second (first x))) (caaddr x) = (first (third x)) (cadaar x) = (second (first (first x))) (cadadr x) = (second (second x)) (caddar x) = (third (first x)) (cadddr x) = (fourth x) (cdaaar x) = (rest (first (first (first x)))) (cdaadr x) = (rest (first (second x))) (cdadar x) = (rest (second (first x))) (cdaddr x) = (rest (third x)) (cddaar x) = (rest (rest (first (first x)))) (cddadr x) = (rest (rest (second x))) (cdddar x) = (rest (rest (rest (first x)))) (cddddr x) = (rest (rest (rest (rest x)))) 
Things like defstruct and Flavors were many years away. For a long time, Lisp dialects had lists as the only kind of structured data, and programmers rarely defined functions with meaningful names to access components of data structures that are represented as lists. Part of understanding old Lisp code is figuring out how data structures are built up and what their components signify.
In LISP 1.5, it's fairly common to see nil used where today we'd use (). For example:
(LAMBDA NIL ...) 
instead of
(LAMBDA () ...) 
or (PROG NIL ...)
instead of
(PROG () ...) 
Actually this practice was used in other Lisp dialects as well, although it isn't really seen in newer code.
Identifiers. If you examine the list of all the symbols described in the LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual, you will notice that none of them differ only in the characters after the sixth character. In other words, it is as if symbol names have only six significant characters, so that abcdef1 and abcdef2 would be considered equal. But it doesn't seem like that was actually the case, since there is no mention of such a limitation in the manual. Another thing of note is that many symbols are six characters or fewer in length.
(A sequence of six characters is nice to store on the hardware on which LISP 1.5 was running. The processor used thirty-six-bit words, and characters were six-bit; therefore six characters fit in a single word. It is conceivable that it might be more efficient to search for names that take only a single word to store than for names that take more than one word to store, but I don't know enough about the computer or implementation of LISP 1.5 to know if that's true.)
Even though the limit on names was thirty characters (the longest symbol names in standard Common Lisp are update-instance-for-different-class and update-instance-for-redefined-class, both thirty-five characters in length), only a few of the LISP 1.5 names are not abbreviated. Things like terpri ("terminate print") and even car and cdr ("contents of adress part of register" and "contents of decrement part of register"), which have stuck around until today, are pretty inscrutable if you don't know what they mean.
Thankfully the modern style is to limit abbreviations. Comparing the names that were introduced in Common Lisp versus those that have survived from LISP 1.5 (see the "Library" section below) shows a clear preference for good naming in Common Lisp, even at the risk of lengthy names. The multiple-value-bind operator could easily have been named mv-bind, but it wasn't.

Fundamental differences.

Truth values. Common Lisp has a single value considered to be false, which happens to be the same as the empty list. It can be represented either by the symbol nil or by (); either of these may be quoted with no difference in meaning. Anything else, when considered as a boolean, is true; however, there is a self-evaluating symbol, t, that traditionally is used as the truth value whenever there is no other more appropriate one to use.
In LISP 1.5, the situation was similar: Just like Common Lisp, nil or the empty list are false and everything else is true. But the symbol nil was used by programmers only as the empty list; another symbol, f, was used as the boolean false. It turns out that f is actually a constant whose value is nil. LISP 1.5 had a truth symbol t, like Common Lisp, but it wasn't self-evaluating. Instead, it was a constant whose permanent value was *t*, which was self-evaluating. The following code will set things up so that the LISP 1.5 constants work properly:
(defconstant *t* t) ; (eq *t* t) is true (defconstant f nil) 
Recall the practice in older Lisp code that was mentioned above of using nil in forms like (lambda nil ...) and (prog nil ...), where today we would probably use (). Perhaps this usage is related to the fact that nil represented an empty list more than it did a false value; or perhaps the fact that it seems so odd to us now is related to the fact that there is even less of a distinction between nil the empty list and nil the false value in Common Lisp (there is no separate f constant).
Function storage. In Common Lisp, when you define a function with defun, that definition gets stored somehow in the global environment. LISP 1.5 stores functions in a much simpler way: A function definition goes on the property list of the symbol naming it. The indicator under which the definition is stored is either expr or fexpr or subr or fsubr. The expr/fexpr indicators were used when the function was interpreted (written in Lisp); the subr/fsubr indicators were used when the function was compiled (or written in machine code). Functions can be referred to based on the property under which their definitions are stored; for example, if a function named f has a definition written in Lisp, we might say that "f is an expr."
When a function is interpreted, its lambda expression is what is stored. When a function is compiled or machine coded, a pointer to its address in memory is what is stored.
The choice between expr and fexpr and between subr and fsubr is based on evaluation. Functions that are exprs and subrs are evaluated normally; for example, an expr is effectively replaced by its lambda expression. But when an fexpr or an fsubr is to be processed, the arguments are not evaluated. Instead they are put in a list. The fexpr or fsubr definition is then passed that list and the current environment. The reason for the latter is so that the arguments can be selectively evaluated using eval (which took a second argument containing the environment in which evaluation is to occur). Here is an example of what the definition of an fexpr might look like, LISP 1.5 style. This function takes any number of arguments and prints them all, returning nil.
(LAMBDA (A E) (PROG () LOOP (PRINT (EVAL (CAR A) E)) (COND ((NULL (CDR A)) (RETURN NIL))) (SETQ A (CDR A)) (GO LOOP))) 
The "f" in "fexpr" and "fsubr" seems to stand for "form", since fexpr and fsubr functions got passed a whole form.
The top level: evalquote. In Common Lisp, the interpreter is usually available interactively in the form of a "Read-Evaluate-Print-Loop", for which a common abbreviation is "REPL". Its structure is exactly as you would expect from that name: Repeatedly read a form, evaluate it (using eval), and print the results. Note that this model is the same as top level file processing, except that the results of only the last form are printed, when it's done.
In LISP 1.5, the top level is not eval, but evalquote. Here is how you could implement evalquote in Common Lisp:
(defun evalquote (operator arguments) (eval (cons operator arguments))) 
LISP 1.5 programs commonly look like this (define takes a list of function definitions):
DEFINE (( (FUNCTION1 (LAMBDA () ...)) (FUNCTION2 (LAMBDA () ...)) ... )) 
which evalquote would process as though it had been written
(DEFINE ( (FUNCTION1 (LAMBDA () ...)) (FUNCTION2 (LAMBDA () ...)) ... )) 
Evaluation, scope, extent. Before further discussion, here the evaluator for LISP 1.5 as presented in Appendix B, translated from m-expressions to approximate Common Lisp syntax. This code won't run as it is, but it should give you an idea of how the LISP 1.5 interpreter worked.
(defun evalquote (function arguments) (if (atom function) (if (or (get function 'fexpr) (get function 'fsubr)) (eval (cons function arguments) nil)) (apply function arguments nil))) (defun apply (function arguments environment) (cond ((null function) nil) ((atom function) (let ((expr (get function 'expr)) (subr (get function 'subr))) (cond (expr (apply expr arguments environment)) (subr ; see below ) (t (apply (cdr (sassoc function environment (lambda () (error "A2")))) arguments environment))))) ((eq (car function 'label)) (apply (caddr function) arguments (cons (cons (cadr function) (caddr function)) arguments))) ((eq (car function) 'funarg) (apply (cadr function) arguments (caddr function))) ((eq (car function) 'lambda) (eval (caddr function) (nconc (pair (cadr function) arguments) environment))) (t (apply (eval function environment) arguments environment)))) (defun eval (form environment) (cond ((null form) nil) ((numberp form) form) ((atom form) (let ((apval (get atom 'apval))) (if apval (car apval) (cdr (sassoc form environment (lambda () (error "A8"))))))) ((eq (car form) 'quote) (cadr form)) ((eq (car form) 'function) (list 'funarg (cadr form) environment)) ((eq (car form) 'cond) (evcon (cdr form) environment)) ((atom (car form)) (let ((expr (get (car form) 'expr)) (fexpr (get (car form) 'fexpr)) (subr (get (car form) 'subr)) (fsubr (get (car form) 'fsubr))) (cond (expr (apply expr (evlis (cdr form) environment) environment)) (fexpr (apply fexpr (list (cdr form) environment) environment)) (subr ; see below ) (fsubr ; see below ) (t (eval (cons (cdr (sassoc (car form) environment (lambda () (error "A9")))) (cdr form)) environment))))) (t (apply (car form) (evlis (cdr form) environment) environment)))) (defun evcon (cond environment) (cond ((null cond) (error "A3")) ((eval (caar cond) environment) (eval (cadar cond) environment)) (t (evcon (cdr cond) environment)))) (defun evlis (list environment) (maplist (lambda (j) (eval (car j) environment)) list)) 
(The definition of evalquote earlier was a simplification to avoid the special case of special operators in it. LISP 1.5's apply can't handle special operators (which is also true of Common Lisp's apply). Hopefully the little white lie can be forgiven.)
There are several things to note about these definitions. First, it should be reiterated that they will not run in Common Lisp, for many reasons. Second, in evcon an error has been corrected; the original says in the consequent of the second branch (effectively)
(eval (cadar environment) environment) 
Now to address the "see below" comments. In the manual it describes the actions of the interpreter as calling a function called spread, which takes the arguments given in a Lisp function call and puts them into the machine registers expected with LISP 1.5's calling convention, and then executes an unconditional branch instruction after updating the value of a variable called $ALIST to the environment passed to eval or to apply. In the case of fsubr, instead of calling spread, since the function will always get two arguments, it places them directly in the registers.
You will note that apply is considered to be a part of the evaluator, while in Common Lisp apply and eval are quite different. Here it takes an environment as its final argument, just like eval. This fact highlights an incredibly important difference between LISP 1.5 and Common Lisp: When a function is executed in LISP 1.5, it is run in the environment of the function calling it. In contrast, Common Lisp creates a new lexical environment whenever a function is called. To exemplify the differences, the following code, if Common Lisp were evaluated like LISP 1.5, would be valid:
(defun weird (a b) (other-weird 5)) (defun other-weird (n) (+ a b n)) 
In Common Lisp, the function weird creates a lexical environment with two variables (the parameters a and b), which have lexical scope and indefinite extent. Since the body of other-weird is not lexically within the form that binds a and b, trying to make reference to those variables is incorrect. You can thwart Common Lisp's lexical scoping by declaring those variables to have indefinite scope:
(defun weird (a b) (declare (special a b)) (other-weird 5)) (defun other-weird (n) (declare (special a b)) (+ a b n)) 
The special declaration tells the implementation that the variables a and b are to have indefinite scope and dynamic extent.
Let's talk now about the funarg branch of apply. The function/funarg device was introduced some time in the sixties in an attempt to solve the scoping problem exemplified by the following problematic definition (using Common Lisp syntax):
(defun testr (x p f u) (cond ((funcall p x) (funcall f x)) ((atom x) (funcall u)) (t (testr (cdr x) p f (lambda () (testr (car x) p f u)))))) 
This function is taken from page 11 of John McCarthy's History of Lisp.
The only problematic part is the (car x) in the lambda in the final branch. The LISP 1.5 evaluator does little more than textual substitution when applying functions; therefore (car x) will refer to whatever x is currently bound whenever the function (lambda expression) is applied, not when it is written.
How do you fix this issue? The solution employed in LISP 1.5 was to capture the environment present when the function expression is written, using the function operator. When the evaluator encounters a form that looks like (function f), it converts it into (funarg f environment), where environment is the current environment during that call to eval. Then when apply gets a funarg form, it applies the function in the environment stored in the funarg form instead of the environment passed to apply.
Something interesting arises as a consequence of how the evaluator works. Common Lisp, as is well known, has two separate name spaces for functions and for variables. If a Common Lisp implementation encounters
(lambda (f x) (f x)) 
the result is not a function applying one of its arguments to its other argument, but rather a function applying a function named f to its second argument. You have to use an operator like funcall or apply to use the functional value of the f parameter. If there is no function named f, then you will get an error. In contrast, LISP 1.5 will eventually find the parameter f and apply its functional value, if there isn't a function named f—but it will check for a function definition first. If a Lisp dialect that has a single name space is called a "Lisp-1", and one that has two name spaces is called a "Lisp-2", then I guess you could call LISP 1.5 a "Lisp-1.5"!
How can we deal with indefinite scope when trying to get LISP 1.5 programs to run in Common Lisp? Well, with any luck it won't matter; ideally the program does not have any references to variables that would be out of scope in Common Lisp. However, if there are such references, there is a fairly simple fix: Add special declarations everywhere. For example, say that we have the following (contrived) program, in which define has been translated into defun forms to make it simpler to deal with:
(defun f (x) (prog (m) (setq m a) (setq a 7) (return (+ m b x)))) (defun g (l) (h (* b a))) (defun h (i) (/ l (f (setq b (setq a i))))) (defun p () (prog (a b i) (setq a 4) (setq b 6) (setq i 3) (return (g (f 10))))) 
The result of calling p should be 10/63. To make it work, add special declarations wherever necessary:
(defun f (x) (declare (special a b)) (prog (m) (setq m a) (setq a 7) (return (+ m b x)))) (defun g (l) (declare (special a b l)) (h (* b a))) (defun h (i) (declare (special a b l i)) (/ l (f (setq b (setq a i))))) (defun p () (prog (a b i) (declare (special a b i)) (setq a 4) (setq b 6) (setq i 3) (return (g (f 10))))) 
Be careful about the placement of the declarations. It is required that the one in p be inside the prog, since that is where the variables are bound; putting it at the beginning (i.e., before the prog) would do nothing because the prog would create new lexical bindings.
This method is not optimal, since it really doesn't help too much with understanding how the code works (although being able to see which variables are free and which are bound, by looking at the declarations, is very helpful). A better way would be to factor out the variables used among several functions (as long as you are sure that it is used in only those functions) and put them in a let. Doing that is more difficult than using global variables, but it leads to code that is easier to reason about. Of course, if a variable is used in a large number of functions, it might well be a better choice to create a global variable with defvar or defparameter.
Not all LISP 1.5 code is as bad as that example!
Join us next time as we look at the LISP 1.5 library. In the future, I think I'll make some posts talking about getting specific programs running. If you see any errors, please let me know.
submitted by kushcomabemybedtime to lisp [link] [comments]

LCD Arduino project Display Heart Rate

LCD Arduino project brief introduction
Some time ago, I found a heart rate sensor module MAX30100 in shopping online. This module can collect blood oxygen and heart rate data of users, which is also simple and convenient to use.
According to the data, I found that there are libraries of MAX30100 in the Arduino library files. That is to say, if I use the communication between LCD Arduino and MAX30100, I can directly call the Arduino library files without having to rewrite the driver files. This is a good thing, so I bought the module of MAX30100.
I decided to use Arduino to verify the heart rate and blood oxygen collection function of MAX30100. With STONE TFT LCD screen for monitoring blood pressure.
Note: this module by default only with 3.3 V level MCU communications, because it defaults to using IIC pin pull up the resistance of 4.7 K to 1.8 V, so there is no communication with the Arduino by default, if you want to commune with the Arduino and need two 4.7 K of the IIC pin pull-up resistor connected to the VIN pin, these contents will be introduced in the back of the chapter.

Functional assignments

Before starting this project, I thought about some simple features:
• Heart rate data and blood oxygen data were collected
• Heart rate and blood oxygen data are displayed through an LCD screen
These are the only two features, but if we want to implement it, we need to do more thinking:
• What master MCU is used?
• What kind of LCD display?
As we mentioned earlier, we use Arduino for the MCU, but this is an LCD Arduino project, so we need to choose the appropriate LCD display module. I plan to use the LCD display screen with a serial port. I have a STONE STVI070WT-01 displayer here, but if Arduino needs to communicate with it, MAX3232 is needed to do the level conversion.
Then the basic electronic materials are determined as follows:
  1. Arduino Mini Pro development board
  2. MAX30100 heart rate and blood oxygen sensor module
  3. STONE STVI070WT-01 LCD serial port display module
  4. MAX3232 module

Hardware Introduction

MAX30100

The MAX30100 is an integrated pulse oximetry and heart rate monitor sensor solution. It combines two LEDs, a photodetector, optimized optics, and low-noise analog signal processing to detect pulse oximetry and heart-rate signals. The MAX30100 operates from 1.8V and 3.3V power supplies and can be powered down through software with negligible standby current, permitting the power supply to remain connected at all times.

Applications

● Wearable Devices
● Fitness Assistant Devices
● Medical Monitoring Devices

Benefits and Features

1、Complete Pulse Oximeter and Heart-Rate SensorSolution Simplifies Design
• Integrated LEDs, Photo Sensor, and high-Performance Analog Front -End
• Tiny 5.6mm x 2.8mm x 1.2mm 14-Pin OpticallyEnhanced System-in-Package
2、Ultra-Low-Power Operation Increases Battery Life for wearable Devices
• Programmable Sample Rate and LED Current for Power Savings
• Ultra-Low Shutdown Current (0.7µA, typ)
3、Advanced Functionality Improves Measurement Performance
• High SNR Provides Robust Motion Artifact Resilience
• Integrated Ambient Light Cancellation
• High Sample Rate Capability
• Fast Data Output Capability

Detection Principle


https://preview.redd.it/254ou0pq20a51.jpg?width=817&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2d3287e1973b328412e14c6e56f74e6f5975153e
Just press your finger against the sensor to estimate pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse (equivalent to heartbeat).
The pulse oximeter (oximeter) is a mini-spectrometer that USES the principles of different red cell absorption spectra to analyze the oxygen saturation of the blood. This real-time and rapid measurement method is also widely used in many clinical references.
I will not introduce the MAX30100 too much, because these materials are available on the Internet. Interested friends can look up the information of this heart rate test module on the Internet, and have a deeper understanding of its detection principle.

Introduction to the STVI070WT-01 displayer

In this project, I will use the STONE STVI070WT-01 to display the heart rate and blood oxygen data.
The driver chip has been integrated inside the display screen, and there is software for users to use. Users only need to add buttons, text boxes, and other logic through the designed UI pictures, and then generate configuration files and download them into the display screen to run.
The display of STVI070WT-01 communicates with MCU through the UART RS232 signal, which means that we need to add a MAX3232 chip to convert the RS232 signal into a TTL signal so that we can communicate with Arduino MCU.

https://preview.redd.it/kyyv3hou20a51.jpg?width=749&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=512b7285eb763e518a85d0b172dabc08b15cab6a
If you are not sure how to use the MAX3232, please refer to the following pictures:

https://preview.redd.it/5laiqsxw20a51.jpg?width=653&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=126fb57d5171d942046277896e1552995df0ce13
If you think the level conversion is too troublesome, you can choose other types of displayers of STONE Tech, some of which can directly output uart-TTL signal.
The official website has detailed information and introduction:
https://www.stoneitech.com/
If you need video tutorials and tutorials to use, you can also find it on the official website.

https://preview.redd.it/0rkfwxk530a51.jpg?width=867&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=32803906927fff48bb8fbc1b0a7c073cfe54c5e5

Development steps

Three steps of STONE display screen development:
• Design the display logic and button logic with STONE TOOL software, and download the design file to the display module.
• MCU communicates with the STONE LCD display module through the serial port.
• With the data obtained in step 2, the MCU does other actions.

STONE TOOL software installation

Download the latest version of the STONE TOOL software (currently TOOL2019) from the website, and install it.
After the software is installed, the following interface will be opened:

https://preview.redd.it/evuct2w630a51.jpg?width=848&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=201d40fdb81e2c4fd229992daf15501f2cb177a0
Click the "File" button in the upper left corner to create a new project, which we will discuss later.

LCD Arduino

Arduino is an open-source electronic prototype platform that is easy to use and easy to use. It includes the hardware part (various development boards that conform to the Arduino specification) and the software part (Arduino IDE and related development kits).
The hardware part (or development board) consists of a microcontroller (MCU), Flash memory (Flash), and a set of universal input/output interfaces (GPIO), which you can think of as a microcomputer motherboard.
The software part is mainly composed of Arduino IDE on PC, related board-level support package (BSP) and rich third-party function library. With the Arduino IDE, you can easily download the BSP associated with your development board and the libraries you need to write your programs.
Arduino is an open-source platform. So far, there have been many models and many derived controllers, including Arduino Uno, Arduino Nano, Arduino Yun and so on. In addition, the Arduino IDE now not only supports the Arduino series development boards but also adds support for popular development boards such as Intel Galileo and NodeMCU by introducing BSP.
Arduino senses the environment through a variety of sensors, controlling lights, motors and other devices to feedback and influence the environment. The microcontroller on the board can be programmed with an Arduino programming language, compiled into binaries, and burned into the microcontroller. Programming for Arduino is implemented with the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino-based projects can contain Arduino only, as well as Arduino and other software running on PC, and they communicate with each other (such as Flash, Processing, MaxMSP).

HMI for Arduino serial display TFT LCD project development environment

The Arduino development environment is the Arduino IDE, which can be downloaded from the Internet.
Log into the official website of Arduino and download the software
https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software?setlang=cn
After installing the Arduino IDE, the following interface will appear when you open the software:

https://preview.redd.it/2ajmkke830a51.jpg?width=567&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=56dc9dd01c98b231c782ef94d24a9f620c4897b3
The Arduino IDE creates two functions by default: the setup function and the loop function.
There are many Arduino introductions on the Internet. If you don't understand something, you can go to the Internet to find it.

LCD Arduino Project implementation process

hardware connection

To ensure that the next step in writing code goes smoothly, we must first determine the reliability of the hardware connection.
Only four pieces of hardware were used in this project:
  1. Arduino Mini pro-development board
  2. STONE STVI070WT-01 TFT-LCD display screen
  3. MAX30100 heart rate and blood oxygen sensor
  4. MAX3232 (rs232-> TTL)
The Arduino Mini Pro development board and STVI070WT-01 TFT-LCD display screen are connected through UART, which requires level conversion through MAX3232, and then the Arduino Mini Pro development board and MAX30100 module are connected through IIC interface. After thinking clearly, we can draw the following wiring picture:

https://preview.redd.it/w2e5c9ha30a51.jpg?width=769&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=95129db838d6c358e986c88a4d1348f4783cd0ab
https://preview.redd.it/eom4wiia30a51.jpg?width=1091&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ff56c3afaf063d7785a5b85ba283532be0dd896e
Make sure there are no errors in the hardware connection and proceed to the next step.

STONE TFT LCD user interface design

First of all, we need to design a UI display image, which can be designed by PhotoShop or other image design tools. After designing the UI display image, save the image in JPG format.
Open the software STONE TOOL 2019 and create a new project:

https://preview.redd.it/sqjii2mc30a51.jpg?width=1004&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=12f0a87d6c2ca8decaff241d5a0b50a3a1aece89
https://preview.redd.it/4ta8cdlc30a51.jpg?width=871&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b31ac5e612a2c809e29f63974a04ba25bff83788
Remove the image that was loaded by default in the new project, and add the UI image that we designed.
Add the text display component, design the display digit and decimal point, get the storage location of the text display component in the displayer.
The effect is as follows:

https://preview.redd.it/2mfqapoe30a51.jpg?width=1335&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=aacfa0fde88defacd127ea9d9d27ab006ab618dd
Text display component address:
• Connection sta : 0x0008
• Heart rate : 0x0001
• Blood oxygen : 0x0005
The main contents of the UI interface are as follows:
• Connection status
• Heart rate display
• Blood oxygen showed

Generate configuration file

Once the UI design is complete, the configuration file can be generated and downloaded to the STVI070WT-01 displaye.

First, perform step 1, then insert the USB flash drive into the computer, and the disk symbol will be displayed. Then click "Download to u-disk" to Download the configuration file to the USB flash drive, and then insert the USB flash drive into STVI070WT-01 to complete the upgrade.

MAX30100

MAX30100 communicates via IIC. Its working principle is that the ADC value of heart rate can be obtained through infrared led irradiation. The MAX30100 register can be divided into five categories: state register, FIFO, control register, temperature register, and ID register. The temperature register reads the temperature value of the chip to correct the deviation caused by the temperature. The ID register can read the chip's ID number.

https://preview.redd.it/221fq8vg30a51.jpg?width=848&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=43e93284ac35cf1944a77d79ff9a2f662e540c7e

MAX30100 is connected with the Arduino Mini Pro development board through the IIC communication interface. Because there are ready-made MAX30100 library files in the Arduino IDE, we can read the heart rate and blood oxygen data without studying the registers of MAX30100.
For those who are interested in exploring the MAX30100 register, see the MAX30100 Datasheet.

Modify the MAX30100 IIC pull-up resistor

It should be noted that the 4.7k pull-up resistance of the IIC pin of MAX30100 module is connected to 1.8v, which is not a problem in theory. However, the communication logic level of the Arduino IIC pin is 5V, so it cannot communicate with Arduino without changing the hardware of the MAX30100 module.Direct communication is possible if the MCU is STM32 or another 3.3v logic level MCU.
Therefore, the following changes need to be made:

https://preview.redd.it/jti57usl30a51.jpg?width=521&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c56b1b1a8294d60a8f9e931e411305f68c5c5559
Remove the three 4.7k resistors marked in the picture with an electric soldering iron. Then weld two resistors of 4.7k at the pins of SDA and SCL to VIN, so that we can communicate with Arduino.

Arduino serial display LCD

Open the Arduino IDE and find the following buttons:

https://preview.redd.it/990d3bdp30a51.jpg?width=853&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=24136c385601b69d5afc67842358b102373277ef
Search for "MAX30100" to find two libraries for MAX30100, then click download and install.

https://preview.redd.it/4n167pbv30a51.jpg?width=933&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cef50833667bae3f30ac94f5a48b43795b779845
After the installation, you can find the Demo of MAX30100 in the LIB library folder of LCD Arduino:

https://preview.redd.it/rn05xgvw30a51.jpg?width=911&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3709bc7c5be36ebdd14c01cb0b7c1933953425b0
Double-click the file to open it.

https://preview.redd.it/q6fqylky30a51.jpg?width=819&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8073917be374a72bef2977b4b11ccb2b56fa944e
This Demo can be directly tested. If the hardware connection is ok, you can download the code compilation into the Arduino development board and see the data of MAX30100 in the serial debugging tool.
The complete code is as follows: /*
Arduino-MAX30100 oximetry / heart rate integrated sensor library
Copyright (C) 2016 OXullo Intersecans
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see .
*/
#include
#include "MAX30100_PulseOximeter.h"
#define REPORTING_PERIOD_MS 1000
// PulseOximeter is the higher level interface to the sensor
// it offers:
// * beat detection reporting
// * heart rate calculation
// * SpO2 (oxidation level) calculation
PulseOximeter pox;
uint32_t tsLastReport = 0;
// Callback (registered below) fired when a pulse is detected
void onBeatDetected()
{
Serial.println("Beat!");
}
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(115200);
Serial.print("Initializing pulse oximeter..");
// Initialize the PulseOximeter instance
// Failures are generally due to an improper I2C wiring, missing power supply
// or wrong target chip
if (!pox.begin()) {
Serial.println("FAILED");
for(;;);
} else {
Serial.println("SUCCESS");
}
// The default current for the IR LED is 50mA and it could be changed
// by uncommenting the following line. Check MAX30100_Registers.h for all the
// available options.
// pox.setIRLedCurrent(MAX30100_LED_CURR_7_6MA);
// Register a callback for the beat detection
pox.setOnBeatDetectedCallback(onBeatDetected);
}
void loop()
{
// Make sure to call update as fast as possible
pox.update();
// Asynchronously dump heart rate and oxidation levels to the serial
// For both, a value of 0 means "invalid"
if (millis() - tsLastReport > REPORTING_PERIOD_MS) {
Serial.print("Heart rate:");
Serial.print(pox.getHeartRate());
Serial.print("bpm / SpO2:");
Serial.print(pox.getSpO2());
Serial.println("%");
tsLastReport = millis();
}
}
📷
This code is very simple, I believe you can understand it at a glance. I have to say that the modular programming of Arduino is very convenient, and I don't even need to understand how the driver code of Uart and IIC is implemented.
Of course, the above code is an official Demo, and I still need to make some changes to display the data to STONE's displayer.

Display data to the STONE display through Arduino LCD

First, we need to get the address of the component that displays the heart rate and blood oxygen data in STONE's displayer:
In my project, the address is as follows:
Heart rate display component address: 0x0001
Address of blood oxygen display module: 0x0005
Sensor connection status address: 0x0008
If you need to change the display content in the corresponding space, you can change the display content by sending data to the corresponding address of the display screen through the serial port of Arduino.
The modified code is as follows:
/*
Arduino-MAX30100 oximetry / heart rate integrated sensor library
Copyright (C) 2016 OXullo Intersecans
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see .
*/
#include
#include "MAX30100_PulseOximeter.h"
#define REPORTING_PERIOD_MS 1000
#define Heart_dis_addr 0x01
#define Sop2_dis_addr 0x05
#define connect_sta_addr 0x08
unsigned char heart_rate_send[8]= {0xA5, 0x5A, 0x05, 0x82,\
0x00, Heart_dis_addr, 0x00, 0x00};
unsigned char Sop2_send[8]= {0xA5, 0x5A, 0x05, 0x82, 0x00, \
Sop2_dis_addr, 0x00, 0x00};
unsigned char connect_sta_send[8]={0xA5, 0x5A, 0x05, 0x82, 0x00, \
connect_sta_addr,0x00, 0x00};
// PulseOximeter is the higher level interface to the sensor
// it offers:
// * beat detection reporting
// * heart rate calculation
// * SpO2 (oxidation level) calculation
PulseOximeter pox;
uint32_t tsLastReport = 0;
// Callback (registered below) fired when a pulse is detected
void onBeatDetected()
{
// Serial.println("Beat!");
}
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(115200);
// Serial.print("Initializing pulse oximeter..");
// Initialize the PulseOximeter instance
// Failures are generally due to an improper I2C wiring, missing power supply
// or wrong target chip
if (!pox.begin()) {
// Serial.println("FAILED");
// connect_sta_send[7]=0x00;
// Serial.write(connect_sta_send,8);
for(;;);
} else {
connect_sta_send[7]=0x01;
Serial.write(connect_sta_send,8);
// Serial.println("SUCCESS");
}
// The default current for the IR LED is 50mA and it could be changed
// by uncommenting the following line. Check MAX30100_Registers.h for all the
// available options.
pox.setIRLedCurrent(MAX30100_LED_CURR_7_6MA);
// Register a callback for the beat detection
pox.setOnBeatDetectedCallback(onBeatDetected);
}
void loop()
{
// Make sure to call update as fast as possible
pox.update();
// Asynchronously dump heart rate and oxidation levels to the serial
// For both, a value of 0 means "invalid"
if (millis() - tsLastReport > REPORTING_PERIOD_MS) {
// Serial.print("Heart rate:");
// Serial.print(pox.getHeartRate());
// Serial.print("bpm / SpO2:");
// Serial.print(pox.getSpO2());
// Serial.println("%");
heart_rate_send[7]=(uint32_t)pox.getHeartRate();
Serial.write(heart_rate_send,8);
Sop2_send[7]=pox.getSpO2();
Serial.write(Sop2_send,8);
tsLastReport = millis();
}
}
Compile the code, download it to the Arduino serial display LCD development board, and you're ready to start testing.
We can see that when the fingers leave the MAX30100, the heart rate and blood oxygen display 0. Place your finger on the MAX30100 collector to see your heart rate and blood oxygen levels in real-time.

LCD Arduino project effect can be seen in the following picture:


https://preview.redd.it/k9u0jtg040a51.jpg?width=510&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1e9994109a072807a802eb1179b874f727aeff5a
https://preview.redd.it/0ow2lfg040a51.jpg?width=576&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b0f5f6ac073894c8b0c033549fce79fac1c90bc3
submitted by Tamesliu to arduino [link] [comments]

Eur/Usd 5 10 25 100 - .5 Decimal 60 Seconds Binary Options System [Binary Options 5 Decimal] EUR USD 5 10 25 100 5 Decimal 60 Seconds Binary Options System Is The 5 Decimal 60 Seconds Binary Options System A Scam? [The Binary Option] Binary Options 5 Point Decimal Trading Strategy EUR/USD 5 10 25 100 - .5 Decimal 60 Seconds Binary Options System binary options 5 decimal

This binary number system is based on two digits and each position is worth two times more than the previous position. Reading a binary number is almost same as reading a decimal. 5 Decimal 60 Seconds Binary Options System:Crypto trading social club. by Nov 1, 2020 Uncategorized 0 comments. Crypto Trading Social Club Leverx Crypto Trading Platform. reuters bitcoin trading execution; ninja trading bitcoin; bitcoin trading without fees; fibonacci trading binary options; like investing in bitcoin ; has richard branson invested in bitcoin; crypto automated trading ... In decimal to binary conversion, we convert a base 10 number to base 2 number by using simple methods.For example, if 12 10 is a decimal number then its equivalent binary number is 1100 2.. Students can learn online here to convert any given decimal number into its equivalent binary number system.In the number system, you may have learned about different types of numbers such as; Reading a binary number is easier than it looks: This is a positional system; therefore, every digit in a binary number is raised to the powers of 2, starting from the rightmost with 2 0. In the binary system, each binary digit refers to 1 bit. Decimal to binary conversion examples (51) 10 = (110011) 2 (217) 10 = (11011001) 2 (8023) 10 ... Binary Options Euro Us Dollar 5 Point Decimal Trading Strategy!. Design Your Forex Trading System in 6 StepsCollective2 Binary Options 5 Point Decimal Strategy, Best Strategy To Win. High Frequency Trading System Engineer Jobs, 5 decimal trading system como ganhar dinheiro vendendo drogas documentario EmploymentJapan Exchange Group Binary System. The binary numeral system uses the number 2 as its base (radix). As a base-2 numeral system, it consists of only two numbers: 0 and 1. While it has been applied in ancient Egypt, China and India for different purposes, the binary system has become the language of electronics and computers in the modern world. Automated Binary. The best new auto trading software: Automated Binary. Get it now for free by clicking the button below and start making Binary Options 5 Decimal System money while you sleep!. Average Return Rate: Around 80% in our test 5 Point Decimal Binary Options. Depends on what type of trading you 5 Point Decimal Binary Options want to do. The timeframes used for this systems are 5 minutes or higher and the expiry time is 3-5 candles So, 0.375 in decimal system is represented as 0.011 in binary. End users typically would not expect 1.1 + 2.2 to display as 3.3000000000000003 as it does with binary floating point. Take ... Binary options let users trade in currency pairs and stocks for various predetermined time-periods, minimal of which is 30 seconds. Executing trades is straightforward. The system uses user-friendly interfaces, which even an 8 years old kid, can operate without having to read any instructions. But winning trades is Not easy. All binary numbers are built as strings of bits (such as 1101). Just as we would say that the decimal number 12890 has five digits, we would say that the binary number 11001 is a five-bit number. All computers use the binary system : 1.Binary number system: Base = 2.Thus there are 2 numbers: 0 and 1.

[index] [11953] [8568] [7320] [27212] [28950] [20027] [5448] [28690] [5675] [12908]

Eur/Usd 5 10 25 100 - .5 Decimal 60 Seconds Binary Options System [Binary Options 5 Decimal]

If you are interested to learn how to trade binary options with a mentor who is doing live session everyday from monday to friday, then contact me. My contact info are below. My Blog if you want ... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue Binary options - the best investment in your future! Faster and easier than Forex! Says the course and give yourself up to 92% profit.! SIGN UP HERE /http://... .5 Decimal System Steps Step 1. Only trade EUR/USD where there is a bias to either a CALL or PUT. You check this on the Popularity Index. If the index says 55% of trades are CALLING then you ... ชัยชนะทั้งหมดเริ่มต้นด้วยชัยชนะ เหนือตัวคุณเอง! ตั้งเป้าหมายและ ... You can make it! click http://option.go2jump.org/SH5MCT 60 seconds binary options Binary Options Binary Options Australia binary options indicator binary opt...

http://binary-optiontrade.ndismandugirte.ga